The Volvo XC90 is the first vehicle of the type of SUV that takes into account other road users. The XC90 is designed to help protect those who use low cars, pedestrians, and cyclists. Its center of gravity is lower than conventional SUVs, which minimizes the risk of overturned vehicles. It has a specially reinforced roof, special sensors to stretch the seat belt, and air bags and Inflatable Curtains will be activated.
The XC90 can be ordered with up to three rows of seats. Chairs in the third row are designed for children. Many jobs are devoted to making the third row seat as safe as the others. All passenger seats can be folded separately, for optimum load space flexibility.
There are a number of innovative techno-logical solutions on the Volvo XC90. The All Wheel Drive system is the same type as used in the newly launched Volvo S60 AWD, but is adapted to meet the requirements of an SUV. The Volvo XC90 is the most flexible and safest SUV on the market, and is also fun to drive.
The Volvo XC90 muscle muscles are paired with jagged corners at the front and rear, promoting a soft, not aggressive impression, helping the vehicle to look more homogeneous.
The interior of the Volvo XC90 is characterized by air, space and quality material. Large glass panels allow a lot of light to enter the passenger compartment, and the cleanliness of the layout and interior trim further enhances the feeling of space and elegance.
Facing the driver is one of the clearest and most ergonomic instrument panels in the world. Compared to those found in passenger cars, the instrument and controls are slightly tilted towards the driver’s eye. Along with a high seating position, this enhances the feeling of control – the single quality that is most valued by SUV buyers. The seats on the Volvo XC90 are designed to make it easier to go up and down from the vehicle.
The interior of the Volvo XC90 offers what might be the biggest flexibility in the SUV class. Despite its compact dimensions, this vehicle offers extensive interior space. The Volvo XC90 can be ordered either as seat five or in a seven-seat configuration.
No matter which variant the customer chooses, the second and third row seats can be folded to make a fully flat luggage compartment floor not less than 1.89 meters, 1.13 meters wide and with a volume of 2404 liters (SAE).
The center row of the seat, designed like a seat in an ordinary passenger car, has a three-part backrest to offer maximum flexibility. The middle seat in this row can be equipped with an integrated child push pillow. In 7 seats, the child seat can shift forward so that it is positioned between the two front seats, thus increasing contact between the child and the parents in the front seat.
The third row has two separate seats, offering full comfort for children or for adults with a simple body.
The Volvo XC90 is a vehicle designed for all types of roads, regardless of the surface under the tires and weather conditions. Although basically not intended for off-road driving, a combination of electronically controlled four-wheel drive and 218 millimeter ground clearance creates the right prerequisites for continuous progress when conditions become difficult. The feeling of being safe given the high seating position to the driver is equipped with the knowledge that he can control the car with the help of instant and weighty responses from the chassis, engine and brakes. Thus, progress is more relaxed and comfortable.
The chassis on the Volvo XC90 is designed to provide the same vehicle as a passenger vehicle. This is based on the Volvo S80, S60 and V70 chassis, cars that are known for their excellent road behavior. On the Volvo XC90, the suspension has been upgraded and its dimensions to handle heavier loads and higher ground clearance.
The multi-link rear suspension is well insulated, with dampers and springs attached directly to the subframe. This results in a quieter ride, because the road noise and transmission are mostly filtered before reaching the bodywork. The MacPherson type front suspension and, together with the new ZF steering gear, increase precision and sharp response. The Volvo XC90 has very wide tracks (front 1634 mm, rear 1624 mm) and a long wheelbase (2859 mm between the front and rear axles). This makes outstanding stability, with vehicles behaving very consistently and reliably even on winding, rotating and uneven roads.
The Volvo XC90 braking system is designed to help stop the vehicle safely, even when it is full of seven people and their luggage. This is achieved with an optimized brake system and EBA (Emergency Brake Assistance). This system monitors how fast the brake pedal is pressed, and thus can determine whether the driver is doing panic braking. In such situations, the brake pressure is pushed to the maximum in the shortest possible time, thereby reducing the stopping distance.
One of the important ingredients in the recipe for safe driving pleasure at the Volvo XC90 is its electronic AWD system, which was developed in close collaboration with one of the leading experts in this field – Haldex from Sweden.
Just like the previous AWD model from Volvo, the four-wheel drive system on the XC90 operates completely regardless of the driver’s input, meaning that the power is automatically distributed between the front and rear wheels for the best grip on all types of road surfaces. Intelligent electronic controlled AWD system. It monitors vehicle contact with the underlying road surface and assesses the signal the driver receives through the steering wheel, brake pedal and accelerator. This information then helps determine whether, and if so, the system must respond. In normal driving on dry roads, almost all power is channeled to the front wheels. If the road surface causes the front wheel to slip, the power is diverted proportionally to the rear wheel. With electronically activated four-wheel drive, AWD involvement takes place very quickly, after only one per seven wheel turns, which eliminates the wheelpin and ensures reliable road grip. As a result, the AWD system on the Volvo XC90 has all the benefits of a permanent four-wheel drive, with no accompanying losses such as higher fuel consumption and heavier weight. The electronic AWD system interacts on the Volvo XC90 with the DSTC active chassis system – Dynamic Stability and Traction Control. This is an anti-skid system that automatically counteracts the initial tendency to slip before the driver even has time to pay attention. This system continuously compares the direction of the vehicle’s progress with the movement of the driver’s steering wheel. If the vehicle shows a tendency to start slipping, the brakes are directly applied to one or more wheels that are needed until the vehicle is stable and slipped avoided. The DSTC also includes an anti-rotation system that automatically brakes the rotating wheel, so the drive is diverted to the wheel with the best grip. It also controls engine torque.
The Volvo XC90 is available with three engine options, all of which are made of aluminum:
The 6 cylinder gasoline engine is in line with a 2.9 liter displacement, equipped with twin turbochargers. This produces 272 bhp (200 kW) and has a torque of not less than 380 Nm from only 1800 turns / minute. 0-100 km / h takes 9.3 seconds and the top speed is limited to 210 km / hour.
2.5-liter 5-cylinder gasoline engine in line with a light-pressure turbocharger. It has a power output of 210 bhp (154 kW) and 320 torque from 1500 revolutions / minute. 0-100 km / h takes 9.9 seconds and a top speed of 210 km / hour.
Common Rail turbodiesel engine 5 cylinders in line 2.4 liters. This produced 163 bhp (120 kW) and offered 340 Nm of 1750 revolutions / minute. 0-100 km / h requires 12.3 seconds and a top speed of 185 km / hr.
The newly developed 163-bhp 5-cylinder diesel engine has a second generation common rail technology. The fuel is injected into the cylinder under very high pressure, up to 1,600 bars. This ensures that the fuel supply is very finely distributed along the injection sequence. The result is highly efficient combustion, increasing engine efficiency and reducing emissions.
The turbocharger is a type of VNT (Variable Nozzle Turbine). This means that the propeller turbine features are moving on the side of the inlet, which promotes high turbine efficiency ratings throughout the rotation range. This allows high thrust pressure from low rotation, resulting in a flat torque curve and higher power output.
The diesel engine transmits its power through 5-speed Geartronic automatic transmission.
Customers expect Volvo to maintain its leadership in the field of safety – regardless of the type of vehicle. With the launch of its first SUV, Volvo Car Corporation entered a completely new segment, and the goal was very clear: to lead in terms of safety.
As with all other Volvo models, safety on the Volvo XC90 is a holistic problem. Safety has never been achieved by simply adding a number of individual stand-alone features to the car: what is important is the interaction between them – it is this interaction that shapes the results.
This holistic approach – and has always been – is one of the cornerstones of Volvo’s safety philosophy.
With the entry of Volvo Cars into the SUV market, there is an increasing focus on several new areas. One of them is a roll-over accident, where the vehicle rolled onto the roof once or more.
Volvo Roll-over Protection System, ROPS, handles problems from two directions:
system of increased stability, RSC, which minimizes the risk of rolling in the first place
increase protection for residents if the vehicle is overturned
Because of the higher center of gravity, an SUV may have a higher risk of rolling in certain critical situations compared to conventional passenger cars. That is why the center of gravity on the Volvo XC90 is kept as low as possible compared to most SUVs. In fact, it’s only 89 mm higher than the Volvo XC70.
However, this does not mean that Volvo has compromised on one property that is highly valued by SUV buyers: a governing sitting position. The front seats are not less than 165 millimeters taller than the Volvo XC70.
To help reduce the risk of roll-over situations, the Volvo XC90 is equipped with an active stability enhancement system known as the Roll Stability Control or RSC. This system uses a gyro sensor to register the roll speed and roll angle of the car. Using this information, the terminal angle is directly calculated and thus the risk of roll-over.
If the calculation angle is so large that there is a clearly overturned risk, the DSTC anti-skid system (Dynamic Stability and Traction Control) is activated. The DSTC responds by reducing engine power and also by braking one or more wheels as needed until the car underestimates and returns stability.
This helps reduce the roll-over accident risk initiated by extreme maneuvering.
RSC is the only active system of increasing stability in the market to measure the roll angle of a car.
If the Volvo XC90 has a passive roll-over safety system in. The aim is to reduce the risk of occupant heads from coming into contact with panels or the roof side of the car’s interior. Volvo has strengthened parts of the roof structure on the Volvo XC90 with very tough Boron steel, which is four or five times stronger than normal steel.
All chairs are equipped with pretensioner seat belts to hold the occupants in place. In an accident, the pretensioner pulls the seat belt firmly across the passenger body to help provide maximum protection.
To help prevent the head from crashing into the side of the car, the Volvo XC90 is equipped with Volvo’s IC or Inflatable Curtain. The IC also helps prevent passengers from being accidentally removed.
The Volvo XC90 has an IC version that is specifically adapted to handle roll-over accidents.
This means that it remains fully increased longer to offer maximum protection in a roll-over scenario. What’s more, the curtain is folded in the tape in such a way that it follows the contours of the window glass when it expands. If the occupant’s head rests on the window at the time of inflation, the curtain will slip between the glass and the occupant’s head to provide enhanced protection.
On the Volvo XC90, the third row of seats in the 7-seat version is protected by IC.
Compatibility issues – when an SUV collides with a car that is closer to the road surface – it is in a strong focus throughout the development of the new Volvo XC90. Typical SUVs have high ground clearance and thus often come with a high position bumper. This can create a greater risk of damage to future passenger cars and more serious injuries to passengers, because the protective beams and lower crumple zones of the car just slip under the front of the SUV without being activated.
To reduce the risk of this type of injury, the front suspension subframe on the Volvo XC90 is equipped with a lower cross-member, positioned at a beam height in a conventional car. The lower beam is integrated into the XC90 structure and is hidden neatly behind the spoiler.
This construction reduces the risk of injury in frontal collisions as well as in rear end impacts and side effects. Lower cross members hit the approaching protective structure of the car, activating the crumple zone as intended so that residents can be given the maximum level of protection.
During the development of the Volvo XC90, sufficient attention was also given to the safety of pedestrians, cyclists and other road users who were relatively unprotected. The entire front of the car has clean, soft and smooth lines, and no protruding parts can cause more severe injuries.
The engine on the Volvo XC90 is mounted low in the vehicle. As a result, the hood has a deformation chamber of not less than 80 mm before contact with the engine below. Thus it serves as a “bumper” absorbent soft impact, reducing the risk of serious injury to pedestrians who may be thrown onto the hood.
The Volvo XC90’s third row seat provides a high level of passenger safety. There is a large space behind it, so that the collision force at the rear end collision can be effectively absorbed and removed.
The rear seat occupants sit just above the rear axle, which is the optimal position in terms of side impact safety. These chairs also have a belt tension, head restraints, and, as mentioned, Inflatable Curtain or IC.
The front airbag is a dual-stage type, with sensors that monitor the force of the incoming collision and adjust airbag inflation.
Safety for the youngest occupants of the car has always been a high priority at Volvo. That is why the Volvo XC90 can be determined with a standard attachment system for child seats, ISOFIX, in the first and second row seats.
WHIPS, the award-winning Volvo Whiplash Protection System, is installed on two Volvo XC90 front seats. WHIPS is activated if a rear end collision occurs from speeds as low as 15 km / h, helping to reduce trauma to the spine and neck thereby reducing the risk of injury.
All wheel drive is electronically controlled for fast and smart activation
The XC90 electronically controlled all-wheel drive system is fully automated, and is one of the most technically advanced systems on the market today.
By comparing with all previous Volvo wheel drive systems based on thick clutch differentials, the new AWD system is much faster in responding. One of the front wheels only needs to start passing the seventh of the single wheel revolution so that the system diverts more power to the rear wheels. This means that the new AWD system provides much better initial traction on difficult surfaces, minimizing the risk, for example, of the front wheels which dig themselves into fine sand. The ‘heavier’ driving surface is, for example sand or wet mud, the greater the difference and the advantages compared to the previous system.
Usually anything between 5 and 65 percent of power is sent to the rear wheels, depending on driving conditions. Changes in the amount of power transferred to the rear wheels are very fast but smooth, without the driver even noticing.
Managing power distribution between right and left is the Traction Control System (TRACS), the Volvo traction system. TRACS intervenes if necessary by braking one wheel to increase the relative power to the wheels with the best traction. This means that the AWD system, which works in conjunction with TRACS, can distribute power to the wheels, which has the best grip at a certain time.
In driving more normally on a good surface, the electronic AWD system further enhances the car-like quality of the Volvo XC90. Steering accuracy is excellent even when accelerating hard – anything that resembles steering torque is almost eliminated by the rapid response of this new system in combination with the new precision steering wheel from ZF.
When the Volvo XC90 is parked, the AWD system is controlled to prevent the front and rear axles from ‘competing’ to get power at an angle to full key, ensuring easy maneuverability for the driver.
When the vehicle is braked, the system is deactivated so that the brake and ABS systems can function effectively, for high stability and short braking distances.
Similarly, the AWD system is deactivated by the Dynamic Stability and Traction Control system (DSTC) if this intervenes braking to counter skidding.
Following is a brief technical description of how the new Volvo AWD system works: 100 times per second, the electronic control system makes judgments of ‘smart’ information from a number of different sources:
Wheel rotation speed (as measured by ABS sensors)
This system has three main parts: a hydraulic pump driven by speed differences between axles, ‘wet’ multi-disc couplings, and electronic control valves.
The overall clutch can be considered a hydraulic pump where the housing pump and ring-shaped piston are connected to one shaft, while the piston control unit is connected to the other shaft. When both axes rotate at the same speed, pumping does not occur. As soon as the speed difference appears, the system starts pumping oil. Because the pump used is a reverse pump, the action is almost instantaneous, avoiding the delays inherent in the slower type of pump.
Oil is pumped into the clutch piston, which compresses the multi-disc coupling section, thereby reducing the speed difference. From here the oil is returned to the tank through an adjustable check valve that controls oil pressure and therefore pressure on the clutch disc.
Electronic control means that the clutch responds ideally in various driving situations.
Gallery of 2002 Volvo XC90 Sport Utility Vehicle Specs and Review
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